with Glaciotectonic Examples

James S. Aber, Professor Emeritus
Emporia State University, Kansas

Table of Contents
Introduction Planar strata
Primary structures Fold geometry
Structure contouring Equal-angular stereonet
Equal-area stereonet I Equal-area stereonet II
Rock strength Fault geometry
Geometry of plates Polar wandering


These webpages present basic concepts in structural geology with practical examples drawn, in part, from glaciotectonic landforms and structures as well as other case studies. Glacier-induced deformations of the crust include a wide variety of folds, faults, diapirs, and other structures that are natural scale-models of larger structures found in mountain systems. Glaciotectonic structures, thus, have the size and scope appropriate for beginning students to understand larger crustal deformations created by plate tectonics.

Twelve exercises begin with basic structural problems, progress through more complex analyses, and conclude with advanced spherical geometry of plate tectonics. This material was developed originally for in-person classroom instruction at Emporia State University and has been adapted and updated here for online delivery, as a supplement for coursework in structural geology and advanced tectonics. An answer key is provided for students to self-check their progress.

Note: these webpages and illustrations are intended for viewing on a lap-top computer, large tablet, or desk-top computer with a monitor at least 10 inches in size. A smart-phone or small tablet is not suitable for viewing these webpages.

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All text and images © by the author (2021).