Denmark and Poland
J.S. and S.W. Aber
|Restored traditional windmills at Gylling, Denmark (left) and near Czarnków, Poland (right). Such mills were utilized since Medieval times until the beginning of the twentieth century.|
|KAP gear for our European trip: cargo box with kites, reel and various accessories, golf-club case for long kites, and two carry-on bags each with a complete camera rig. Note the towing ring (<) in the rear bumper, which we used for the kite anchor at most sites.|
|Left: Agricco wind turbine mounted on the base of a traditional windmill. The Agricco was developed in 1919 by Danish engineers and manufactured during the 1920s (Christensen and Thorndahl 2012). Note millstones at bottom; photographed by the authors on Bornholm in 1979.|
Right: Tvind wind turbine was built 1975-78; for many years it was the largest wind turbine in active service and is still operating today. It demonstrated the potential for industrial-scale wind energy. The concrete tower is 53 m tall, and the rotor is 54 m in diameter.
|New Vestas world headquarters opened in 2011 at Aarhus, Denmark. Main administrative building (left) and research building (right).|
|Windmills are a popular theme in Danish culture, for example in Christmas Plates from Royal Copenhagen. Traditional windmill (left) and modern offshore wind turbines at Horns Reef (right).|
Udbyneder wind farm
A substantial wind farm is located on the eastern side of Jylland near the Kattegat coast. Mariager Fjord and the city of Hobro are nearby. The area of the wind farm is low-lying land drained by a network of ditches and used primarily for agricultural crops. Bright yellow fields are raps oil (canola). Other fields contain varieties of wheat, barley, and rye grains as well as hay. The wind farm includes NEG Micon and Siemens turbines positioned in a grid system.
Left: close-up shot looking down on a Siemens turbine; note its shadow. Small building to left controls drainage. Right: kite flyers (*) set up between large storage bins and drainage ditches.
Left: view west toward a large agricultural complex with various types of crops. Right: hot spot (<) appears next to the kite shadow. It's unusual for the sun, kite and camera to be aligned so closely.
Ramme Dige archaeological site
Ramme Dige is an archaeological complex in western Jylland that contains several burial mounds from the Neolithic (late Stone Age) and Bronze Age as well as remains of a defensive wall (dige) built during the Iron Age. Many more burial mounds once existed, but some have been removed. Nonetheless, the positions of these former mounds are clearly depicted in our images. Wind turbines are visible in the background inland from the North Sea. We conducted KAP at this site before in the autumn of 2005—see Ramme Dige.
|Left: looking inland (eastward) with wind turbines in the background. Right: opposite view toward the North Sea (westward) showing some burial mounds in the foreground.|
|Left: view toward north over the rural agricultural landscape. Bright yellow fields are raps oil (canola). Right: close-up shot of the Iron Age wall trace. A portion of the wall is reconstructed at scene center (*).|
|Left: burial mounds preserved in the protected portion of the site. Right: looking over an agricultural field that contains traces of removed burial mounds (*) and former field boundaries (x). A preserved burial mound appears in the upper left corner.|
|Views northward along the beach. High-oblique vantage (left) with kite flyers in lower left corner. Offshore, submerged sand bars are clearly visible. Low-oblique shot (right).|
|Looking southward with shallow water and the beach (left) and the extensive camping-area complex at Nørre Hurup (right).|
|Left: vertical shot of shallow lagoon, beach, and sand bar. Note people on beach to right. Right: the authors on the beach. We found a steel post in the sand to use as our anchor.
|Tackle wind turbines in northern Poland at Szarzewo near the Baltic coast. Tackle Windtechnik was the second leading German manufacturer of wind turbines in the 1990s. Photo by the authors in 1998, when Poland's wind-power capacity was a mere 5 MW (Wind Power 2013).|
|Left: kite flyers at lower right corner downwind from a grove of trees in the middle of the Radwanki wind farm. Right: close-up view of large EDP Renewables turbine. This is the closest we have ever flown to a large operating turbine, and we had to be cautious to avoid turbulence.|
|Left: looking eastward over the village of Radwanki. Feature in center foreground is a cemetery. Right: Panoramic view to northeast showing a large farm complex in foreground and many wind turbines in the distant background.|
|Left: view toward the northeast over farmsteads and fields with turbines in the background. Right: looking southward. Note long shadow of turbine across bottom of scene in the late afternoon.|
Text and images © J.S. and S.W. Aber
Text and images © J.S. and S.W. Aber